TdB Labs

Raffaello Papadakis

MEng, PhD
Senior Research Scientist

Raffaello holds a Chemical Engineering Diploma (2005) and a PhD degree in the field of physical organic chemistry (2010), both from the National Technical University of Athens, Greece. During his PhD, he specialized in the synthesis of solvatochromic probes and molecular switches. Later on, he moved to Marseille, France (September 2010–January 2013) working as a researcher at the Institute of Molecular Sciences, CNRS/Aix-Marseille University, in the field of water oxidation catalysts in the research group of Dr. Thierry Tron. Raffaello has subsequently moved to Uppsala University to join the group of Dr. Henrik Ottosson (2014) in which he worked as a PostDoc and later on as a researcher. His research interests revolve around physical organic and materials chemistry with an emphasis on the chemistry and photochemistry of graphene as well as polysaccharide chemistry. He is the author and co-author of 30 peer-reviewed scientific papers, three book chapters and has more than 35 contributions to international conference proceedings. Furthermore, Raffaello is an active referee of scientific peer-reviewed papers of world-class chemistry journals and he has acted repeatedly as a scientific expert evaluating international research grant proposals (including EU-grant applications). He has acted as the academic editor of a Book related to Dyes and Pigments and the Molecules (MDPI) issue: “Coupling Heterocyclic to Graphene Chemistry: Syntheses, Functionalizations, Interactions and Catalysis”. In his work at TdB Labs, Raffaello is particularly interested in polysaccharide fluorescent labeling and dye applications. Raffaello works currently as a senior research scientist at TdB Labs AB.


  1. Hu Ye, Xiaoling Du, Yining Wang, Mingyang Liu, Benqing Liu, Jiangwei, Hassan Jafri, Liu Wencheng, Raffaello Papadakis, Zheng Xiaoxiao, Hu Li. Advances in the Field of Two-Dimensional Crystal-Based Photodetectors. Nanomaterials 2023, 13(8), 1379; DOI: 10.3390/nano13081379
  2. Chen Zhang, Xiaoxiao Zheng, Jie Cui, Jiangwei Liu, Tianbo Duan, Baoqing Zhang, Zihao Zhang, Syed Hassan Mujtaba Jafri, Raffaello Papadakis, Zhao Qian, Hu Li, Klaus Leifer. Making monolayer graphene photoluminescent by electron-beam-activated fluorination approach. App. Surf. Sci., 2023, 608, 154593; DOI: 10.1016/j.apsusc.2022.154593
  3. Tianbo Duan, Hu Li, Raffaello Papadakis and Klaus Leifer. Towards ballistic transport CVD graphene by controlled removal of polymer residues. Nanotechnology, 2022, 33(49) 495704; DOI: 10.1088/1361-6528/ac8d9b
  4. Mingyue Zhao, Yurui Hao, Chen Zhang, Rongli Zhai, Benqing Liu, Wencheng Liu, Cong Wang, Syed Hassan Mujtaba Jafri, Aamir Razaq, Raffaello Papadakis, Jiangwei Liu,* Xiaoling Ye,* Xiaoxiao Zheng,* Hu Li * Advances in Two-Dimensional Materials for Optoelectronics Applications. Crystals 2022, 12(8), 1087; DOI: 10.3390/cryst12081087
  5. Xiaoxiao Zheng, Rongli Zhai, Zihao Zhang, Baoqing Zhang, Jiangwei Liu, Aamir Razaq, Muhammad Ashfaq Ahmad, Rizwan Raza, Muhammad Saleem, Syed Rizwan, Syed Hassan Mujtaba Jafri, Hu Li*, Raffaello Papadakis* Graphene-Oxide-Based Fluoro- and Chromo-Genic Materials and Their Applications. Molecules 2022, 27(6), 2018. DOI: 10.3390/molecules27062018
  6. Katerina Mavronasou, Alexandra Zamboulis, Panagiotis Klonos, Apostolos Kyritsis, Dimitrios N. Bikiaris, Raffaello Papadakis and Ioanna Deligkiozi* “Poly(vinyl pyridine) and Its Quaternized Derivatives: Understanding Their Solvation and Solid State Properties”. Polymers 2022, 14(4), 804. DOI:3390/polym14040804. (Special Issue: Advances and Applications of Block Copolymers)
  7. Aamir Razaq, Faiza Bibi, Xiaoxiao Zheng, Raffaello Papadakis, Syed Hassan Mujtaba Jafri and Hu Li*. “Review on Graphene-, Graphene Oxide-, Reduced Graphene Oxide-Based Flexible Composites: From Fabrication to Applications. Materials” 2022, 15(3), 1012. DOI: 10.3390/ma15031012. (Special Issue: Advanced Graphene and Graphene Oxide Materials)
  8. Hu Li*, Tianbo Duan, Omer Sher, Yuanyuan Han, Raffaello Papadakis, Anton Grigoriev, Rajeev Ahuja , Klaus Leifer “Fabrication of BP2T functionalized graphene via non-covalent π-π stacking interactions for enhanced ammonia detection” RSC Adv. 2021, 11, 35982-35987. DOI: 10.1039/D1RA06879B
  9. Hu Li and Raffaello Papadakis* “Click Chemistry Enabling Covalent and Non-Covalent Modifications of Graphene with (Poly)saccharides” Polymers 2021, 13(1), 142. DOI: 10.3390/polym13010142
  10. Dimitris Matiadis*, Katarzyna E. Nowak, Eleni Alexandratou, Antonios Hatzidimitriou, Marina Sagnou, Raffaello Papadakis* “Synthesis and (fluoro)solvatochromism of two 3-styryl-2-pyrazoline derivatives bearing benzoic acid moiety: A spectral, crystallographic and computational study.” J. Mol. Liq. 2021, 331,115737. DOI:10.1016/j.molliq.2021.115737
  11. Hu Li*, Raffaello Papadakis, Tanveer Hussain, Amir Karton, Jiangwei Liu “Moiré patterns arising from bilayer graphone/graphene superlattice” Nano Res. 2020, 13 (4), 1060-1064. DOI: 10.1007/s12274-020-2744-6
  12. Raffaello Papadakis* “Mono- and Di-Quaternized 4,4′-Bipyridine Derivatives as Key Building Blocks for Medium- and Environment-Responsive Compounds and Materials” Molecules, 2020, 25(1), 1;
  13. Raffaello Papadakis,* Ioanna Deligkiozi, Katarzyna Nowak. “Study of the preferential solvation effects in binary solvent mixtures with use of intensely solvatochromic azobenzene involving [2]rotaxane solutes” J.Mol. Liq.2019, 274, 715–723. DOI: 10.1016/j.molliq.2018.10.164
  14. Hu Li*, Jiangwei Liu, Raffaello Papadakis. “Direct measurement of the surface energy of single-walled carbon nanotubes through atomic force microscopy” J. App. Phys. 2019, 126, 065105 DOI:10.1063/1.5108935
  15. Jiangwei Liu, Song Chen, Raffaello Papadakis,* Hu Li* “Nanoresolution pattering of hydrogenated graphene by electron beam induced C-H dissociation”. Nanotechnology (IOP Science) 2018, 29 (41) 415304. DOI: 10.1088/1361-6528/aad651
  16. Hu Li, Raffaello Papadakis, S. Hassan. Jafri, Thomas Thersleff, Henrik Ottosson and Klaus Leifer* “Superadhesion of Graphene Nanoscrolls”. Communication Physics (Nature) 2018, 1, 44. DOI: 10.1038/s42005-018-0043-2
  17. Jiangwei Liu, Song Chen, Raffaello Papadakis, Hu Li* “Determination of surface energy of gold nanoparticles through atomic force microscopy. Experimental observation of size dependent surface energy”Appl. Phys. Lett.2018, 113, 083108. DOI: 10.1063/1.5046736
  18. Maria-Chrysanthi Kafentzi,‡ Raffaello Papadakis,‡ Federica Gennarini, Amélie Kochem, Olga Iranzo, Yves Le Mest, Nicolas Le Poul, Thierry Tron, Bruno Faure, Marius Réglier, A. Jalila Simaan* “Electrochemical water oxidation and stereo-selective oxygen atom transfer mediated by a copper complex” Chem. Eur. J. 2018, 24, 5213-5224 DOI: 10.1002/chem.201704613
  19. Anna Lundstedt,‡ Raffaello Papadakis,‡ Hu Li,‡ Yuanyuan Han, Kjell Jorner, Joakim Bergman, Klaus Leifer, Helena Grennberg, Henrik Ottosson* “White-light photoassisted covalent functionalization of graphene using 2-propanol” Small Methods, 2017, 1, 1700214 DOI: 10.1002/smtd.201700214
  20. Rabia Ayub, Raffaello Papadakis, Kjell Jorner, Burkhard Zietz and Henrik Ottosson* “The Cyclopropyl Group: An Excited State Aromaticity Indicator?” Chem. Eur. J. 2017, 23, 13684–13695. DOI: 10.1002/chem.201701404
  21. Raffaello Papadakis* “Solute-centric versus indicator-centric solvent polarity parameters in binary solvent mixtures. Determining the contribution of local solvent basicity to the solvatochromism of ferrocyanide(II) dyes” J. Mol. Liq. 2017, 241, 211–221. DOI:
  22. Raffaello Papadakis, Hu Li, Joakim Bergman, Anna Lundstedt, Kjell Jorner, Rabia Ayub, Burkhard Jahn, Soumyajyoti Haldar, Aleksandra Denisova, Burkhard Zietz, Roland Lindh, Biplab Sanyal, Helena Grennberg, Klaus Leifer and Henrik Ottosson*  “Metal-Free Photochemical Silylations and Transfer Hydrogenations of Benzenoid  Hydrocarbons and Graphene” Nat. Commun. 2016, 7, 12962. DOI: 10.1038/ncomms12962
  23. Raffaello Papadakis* “Preferential solvation of a highly medium responsive pentacyanoferrate(II) complex in binary solvent mixtures. Understanding the role of dielectric enrichment and the specificity of solutesolvent interactions” J. Phys. Chem. B, 2016, 120, 9422−9433. DOI : 10.1021/acs.jpcb.6b05868
  24. Raffaello Papadakis,* Ioanna Deligkiozi, Michel Giorgi, Bruno Faure and Athanase Tsolomitis “Supramolecular complexes of non-symmetric viologens cations and hexacyanoferrate(II) anions. A spectroscopic and crystallographic study”. RSC Advances, 2016, 6, 575–585. DOI: 10.1039/C5RA16732A
  25. Raffaello Papadakis, Henrik Ottosson* “The excited state antiaromatic benzene ring: A molecular Mr. Hyde?” Chem. Soc. Rev. 2015, 44, 6472-6493. DOI: 10.1039/c5cs00057b. Part of themed collection: Challenges in Aromaticity: 150 Years after Kekulé’s Benzene
  26. Ioanna Deligkiozi, Evangelos Voyiatzis, Athanase Tsolomitis, Raffaello Papadakis* “Synthesis and characterization of new azobenzene-containing bis pentacyanoferrate(II) stoppered push-pull [2]rotaxanes, with α- and β-cyclodextrin. Towards highly medium responsive dyes.” Dyes Pigment., 2015, 113, 709–722. DOI: 10.1016/j.dyepig.2014.10.005 (Highlighted on Advances in Engineering, April 2015)
  27. Raffaello Papadakis* “The solvatochromic behavior and degree of ionicity of a synthesized pentacyano (N-substituted-4,4′-bipyridinium) ferrate(II) complex in different media. Tuning the solvatochromic intensity in aqueous glucose solutions”. Chem. Phys., 2014, 430, 29–39. DOI: 10.1016/j.chemphys.2013.12.008
  28. Raffaello Papadakis Eric Riviere, Michel Giorgi, Pierre Rousselot-Pailley, Marius Réglier, Jalila A. Simaan* and Thierry Tron.“Structural and magnetic characterization of a tetranuclear copper(II) cubane stabilized by intra-molecular metal cation-π interactions”  Chem. 2013, 52, 5824-5830. DOI:10.1021/ic3027545
  29. Ioanna Deligkiozi, Raffaello Papadakis*, and Athanase Tsolomitis “Photoconductive properties of a π-conjugated a-cyclodextrin containing [2]rotaxane and its corresponding molecular dumbbell”. Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 2013, 15, 3497-3503. DOI: 10.1039/c3cp43794a
  30. Raffaello Papadakis*, Ioanna Deligkiozi and Athanase Tsolomitis “Synthesis and characterization of a group of new medium responsive non symmetric viologens. Chromotropism and structural effects” Dyes Pigment. 2012, 95, 478-484. DOI: 10.1016/j.dyepig.2012.06.013
  31. Ioanna Deligkiozi, Raffaello Papadakis and Athanase Tsolomitis* “Synthesis characterization and photoswitchability of a new [2]rotaxane of α-cyclodextrin with a diazobenzene containing π-conjugated molecular dumbbell” Supramol. Chem. 2012, 24, 333-343. DOI:10.1080/10610278.2012.660529
  32. Raffaello Papadakis* and Athanase Tsolomitis “Solvatochromism and preferential solvation in binary mixtures of  hydroxylic and non hydroxylic solvents, of 4-pentacyanoferrate 4′-aryl substituted bipyridinium complexes” J. Solution Chem., 2011, 40, 1108-1125. DOI: 10.1007/s10953-011-9697-z
  33. Raffaello Papadakis, Ioanna Deligkiozi, and Athanase Tsolomitis* “Spectroscopic investigation of the solvatochromic behavior of a new synthesized non symmetric viologen dye. Study of the solvent-solute interactions” Anal. Bionanal. Chem. 2010, 397, 2253-2259. DOI:0.1007/s00216103792-
  34. Raffaello Papadakis and Athanase Tsolomitis* “Study of the correlations of the MLCT Vis-absorption maxima of 4-pentacyanoferrate-4΄-aryl substituted bispyridinium complexes with the Hammett substituent parameters and the  solvent polarity parameters ΕTN and AN”  J. Phys. Org. Chem., 2009, 22, 515-521. DOI: 10.1002/poc.1514

Book Chapters

  1. Hu Li and Raffaello Papadakis.* “Fluorescence imaging enhanced by members of the graphene family. A review” Chapter in “Fluorescence Imaging – Recent Advances and Applications” Editor Dr. Raffaello Papadakis (InTech – Open Science) 2022. In preparation
  2. Ioanna Deligkiozi and Raffaello Papadakis.* “Probing preferential solvation effects in binary solvent mixtures with the use of solvatochromic compounds involving two medium responsive units” Chapter in Dyes and Pigments: Novel Applications and Waste Treatment. Editor Dr. Raffaello Papadakis (InTech – Open Science) 2021. DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.98180
  3. Raffaello Papadakis.* “Introductory Chapter: Dyes and Pigments-Past, Present, and Future” Chapter in Dyes and Pigments: Novel Applications and Waste Treatment. Editor Dr. Raffaello Papadakis (InTech – Open Science) 2021. DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.98599
  4. Raffaello Papadakis*, Ioanna Deligkiozi. “Solvent Effects in Supramolecular Systems” Chapter in Solvents and Solvent Effects, Editor: Dr. Daniel Glossman-Mitnik. (InTech – Open Science) 2019. DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.86981
  5. Raffaello Papadakis*, Ioanna Deligkiozi, Hu Li. “Photoconductive interlocked molecules and macromolecules”Chapter in Photodiodes. Editor: Prof. Kuan Chee (InTech – Open Science) 2018. DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.79798

Edited books

  1. Structural and Physical Research on Low-Dimensional Materials (Materials, MDPI). In preparation
  2. Raffaello Papadakis (ed.) “Fluorescence Imaging – Recent Advances and Applications” Published: 22 November 2023; DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.100985; ISBN: 978-1-80355-184-5; eBook (PDF) ISBN: 978-1-80355-185-2 Copyright year: 2023
  3. Raffaello Papadakis (ed.) “Dyes and Pigments: Novel Applications and Waste Treatment” Published: 21 July 2021; DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.90970; ISBN: 978-1-83968-615-3; eBook (PDF) ISBN: 978-1-83968-616-0 Copyright year: 2021
  4. Raffaello Papadakis (ed.) “Graphene Oxide and Heterocycle-Involving Graphene Analogues: Syntheses, Functionalizations, Interactions and Catalysis” A special issue of Molecules<> MDPI (ISSN 1420-3049)m
Edouard Zamaratski

Edouard Zamaratski

Scientific Consultant

Edouard is an experienced synthetic organic and medicinal chemist who received his M.Sc in 1990 from Samara State University (Russia) in the field of carbohydrate chemistry. After moving to Uppsala, Sweden, he obtained his PhD in the Bioorganic Chemistry Department at Uppsala University (2000), with the doctoral thesis focusing on nucleoside chemistry and nucleic acids research.

Short thereafter Edouard has dedicated 14 years to Life Science industry working with preclinical drug discovery at Karo Bio AB (Stockholm, Sweden). During this time Edouard has developed novel ligands for nuclear receptors, contributing to medicinal chemistry programs in the areas of inflammation, diabetes, CNS and autoimmune disease. He was the manager and project leader for chemistry efforts in collaborative projects with world-leading pharma companies including Wyeth Pharmaceuticals (US), Zydus Cadila (India), Pfizer (US), among others.

Since 2015 he has been conducting research on antibacterial substances at the Medicinal Chemistry Department, Uppsala University (Sweden). Edouard’s main project within this role included the design and synthesis of novel antibiotics, and he was assigned as a Program Leader for UU antibacterial project named ENABLE (European Gram Negative Antibacterial Engine) – an European antibacterial drug discovery platform.

Alexander Paptchikhine

Alexander Paptchikhine

MSc, PhD
Scientific Consultant

Alexander Paptchikhine received his B.Sc. from Samara State University (1979, Russia) and his PhD from Institute of Molecular Biology, Russian Academy of Science Moscow, (1987, Russia, Ph. D. thesis entitled “Synthesis of Carbohydrate Modified Nucleosides”). Alexander has been working in Samara State University (research assistant, senior scientist 6 years), BMC (Uppsala, Sweden, postdoc, research assistant, 1991-1995), Pharmacia, Biovitrum (Uppsala; Sweden, Scientist II, 1995-2009), AstraZeneca (Stockholm; Sweden, Scientist, 2010-2012), Karobio (Stockholm; Sweden, Scientist, 2013-2014). During this long scientific career in R & D he acquired experience:

  • in developing synthetic routes for novel carbohydrate and heterocycle- modified nucleosides as potential anti-cancer and anti-retro-viral agents as well as new methods for modifying carbohydrates;
  • in medicinal and combinatorial chemistry at all stages of project development – hit optimization, hit-to-lead and lead optimization (route development, scaffold synthesis, scale up, synthesis optimization, design and preparation of focused libraries for SAR build-up etc);
  • in chemical development in multiple projects. This included multi-step synthesis of Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients and active metabolites in multi gram scales; evaluation of existing routes provided by medicinal chemists and designing new synthetic routes if necessary;
  • in the chemistry of a wide range of classes of organic compounds (heterocycles, carbohydrates, guanidines, fluororganics, coupling chemistry etc).

Alexander joined TdB Labs AB in March 2015 as senior research scientist.


1. Synthesis of 3′-azido- and 3′-amino-3′-deoxyarabinonucleoside 5′-triphosphates and the investigation of their substrate properties in the systems with polynucleotide synthesizing enzymes. A.V. Papchikhin; P.P. Purygin; A.V. Azhajev; A.A. Krayevsky; T.V. Kutateladze; Z.G. Chidgavadze; R.Sh. Bibiblashvili; Bioorg. Chem., (Russia), 1985, 11, pp. 1367-1379

2. Inhibiting action of some analogues of nucleoside 5′-triphosphates on DNA synthesis catalyzed by polymerase of herprs simplex virus type 1. T.J. Kilesso; V.M. Shobukhov; A.V. Papchikhin; G.A. Galegov; Mol. Genetic, Microbiology and Virology, (Russia), 1987, N 10, pp. 41-44.

3. Inhibitory effect of 3′-amino- and 3′-azido-3′-deoxyribonucleoside 5′-triphosphates on RNA synthesis catalysed by influenza A viral RNA polymerase and cellular RNA polymerase. N.F. Pravdina; A.V. Papchikhin; P.P. Purygin; G.A. Galegov; Mol. Genetic, Microbiology and Virology, (Russia), 1989, N 1, pp. 29-33.

4. Selective inhibitors of DNA chain elongation catalysed by DNA polymerases. A.A. Krayevsky; M.K. Kukhanova; A.M. Atrazhev; N.B. Dyatkina; A.V. Papchikhin; Z.G. Chidgavadze; R.Sh. Bibiblashvili; Nucleosides and nucleotides 1988, 7(5&6), pp. 613-617

5. Conformationally restricted nucleoside 5′-triphosphates as termination substrates for DNA polymerases. Z.G. Chidgavadze; R.Sh. Bibiblashvili; T.A Rozovskaya; N.V. Tarusova; A.M. Atrazhev; N.B.Dyatkina; M.K Kukhanova; A.V. Papchikhin; A.A. Krayevsky; Mol. Biolog. (Russia), 1989, 23, pp. 1732-1742.

6. X-ray analysis of 2′,3′-lyxoanhydrothymidine, a conformationally restricted inhibitor of retroviral reverse transcriptases. G.V. Gurskaya; A.V. Bochkarev; A.S. Zdanov; A.V. Papchikhin; P.P. Purygin; A.A. Krayevsky; FEBS Letters, 1990, 265, pp. 63-66.

7. Structural features of 2′,3′-riboanhydroadenosine, a conformationaly restricted termination substrate of DNA polymerase. G.V. Gurskaya; A.V. Bochkarev; A.S. Zdanov; A.V. Papchikhin; P.P. Purygin; A.A. Krayevsky; Nucleosides and Nucleotides 1992, 11(1), pp. 1-9.

8. Synthesis of 2′,3′-dideoxy-3′-nitro-2′,3′-didehydrothymidine. Its use as a general intermediate for the preparation of various 2′,3′-substituted nucleosides. N. Hossain; A. Papchikhin; N. Garg; I. Federov; J. Chattopadhyaya; Nucleosides and Nucleotides, 1993, 12(5), pp. 499-528.

9. [4+2] and [3+2] cycloaddition reactions of 2′,3′-dideoxy-3′-nitro-2′,3′-didehydrothymidine with ethyl vinyl ether. A. Papchikhin; P. Agback; J. Plavec; J. Chattopadhyaya; J. Org. Chem., 1993, 58, pp. 2874-2879.

10. Solution and solid state structure of 2′,5′-bis-(O-trityl)-3′-oximinouridine. P. Agback; A. Papchikhin; S. Neidle; J. Chattopadhyaya; Nucleosides and Nucleotides, 1993, 12(6), pp. 605-614.

11. Synthesis of 2′- and 3′-spiro-isoxazolidine derivatives of thymidine and their conversion to 2′,3′-dideoxy-2′,3′-didehydro-3′-C-substituted nucleosides by radical promoted fragmentation. N. Hossain; A. Papchikhin; J. Plavec; J. Chattopadhyaya; Tetrahedron. 1993, 49, pp. 10133-10156.

12. New diastereospecific synthesis of 2′,3′-dideoxy-2′- or 3′-C2-branched- or 2′,3′-?-fused-isoxazolidine nucleosides directly from the seconucleoside. A. Papchikhin; J. Chattopadhyaya; Tetrahedron. 1994, 50, pp. 5279-5286.

13. How does the electronegativity of the substituent dictate the strength of the gauche effect? C. Thibaudeau; J. Plavec; N. Garg; A. Papchikhin; J. Chattopadhyaya; J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1994, 116, pp. 4038-4043.

14. 2′,3′-Dideoxy-3′-C,2′-N-[(3R,5R)-5-ethoxycarbonyl-2-methyl-1,2-isoxazolidine]ribothymidi-ne. B. M. Burkhart; A. Papchikhin; J. Chattopadhyaya; M. Sundaralingam. Acta Crystallogr., Sect. C: Cryst. Struct. Commun. 1995, C51(7), 1462-4.

15. The diastereospecific synthesis of new 2′,3′-cis-?-fused carbocyclic nucleosides. A. Papchikhin; P. Agback; J. Plavec; J. Chattopadhyaya; Tetrahedron. 1995, 51, pp. 329-342.

16. 2′,3′-Dideoxy-3′-nitrothymidine and 2′-propoxy-3′-nitrothymidine. S. Neidle; J. Chattopadhyaya; N. Hossain; A. Papchikhin. Acta Crystallogr., Sect. C: Cryst. Struct. Commun. 1996, C52(12), 3173-3177.


1. Substituted azolids of ribonucleoside 5′-monophosphates as intermediate products for the synthesis of ribonucleoside 5′-polyphosphates. Pat. USSR N 1491872. 1989. P.P. Purygin; A.A. Krayevsky; Z.P. Belousova; A.V. Papchikhin.

2. Synthesis of 2′-deoxyxylothymidine, derivatives of D-xylofuranose, and derivatives of xylothymidine. Pat. USSR 2108339 C1. 1998. A.V. Papchikhin, S.A Rumyantseva






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